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Borneo Motherlands History
The Deer Cave was mapped extensively by a Royal Geographical Society expedition in 1978 which measured the area of the cave to be 174 m (571 ft) wide and 122 m (400 ft) high in a section that passes through the mountain for a distance of 1 km. (0.62 miles). And then Hoffman Institute at Western Kentucky University followed up the research in 2009 it increased the length of the recognized passage to 4.1 km (2.5 mi) and connected Lang cave, and other caves as the Deer Cave system within Gunung Mulu national park.
Based on geological history research shows that the main passage inside the Deer Cave, shows a waterfall that flows from the ceiling as high as more than 122 m (400 ft). The formation of this cave is closely related to the geological history of the Borneo island which in between 40,000,000 BC and 20,000,000 BC, a 1,500 m (4,900 ft) thick layer of sedimentary rock known as limestone, consisting mostly of compressed sea shells, developed in lagoons made by coral reefs.
The movement of the Asian and Australian tectonic plates caused the earth’s crust to curve and elevate the land, giving birth to the island of Borneo and the Mulu mountains, about five million years ago. Since then, the landscape has been plagued by constant erosion from precipitation and wind.
The mountain’s surface is mostly composed of limestone, which dissolves when it comes into contact with fresh water, and is thus slowly sculpted into karst. Rainwater also infiltrates the porous sedimentary rock after passing through the soil and gradually dissolves the limestone, widening the pores and cracks and creating caves with impressive dimensions such as the Deer Cave.
This ongoing natural process will cause the cave to expand in dynamics in the future.