Super-volcano History

 After spending a decade collecting the visual data as his long-term photo coverage about the Sinabung volcano prolonged eruption.

 Sutanta Aditya then developed his visual data to the topic about the mega-eruption impact of the Toba super-volcano as the Toba caldera history from the geologists research.

 This development also inspired Sutanta Aditya to collaborates his data visual about the ancient wildlife as another focus topic of his reportage around the orangutan evolution research to be his recent multi-topic photo reporting programme. 

Super-volcano Eruption History

 Lake Toba is situated in Sumatera island (Indonesia), formed by a mega-volcanic eruptions 74,000 years ago, is the largest with-in the Quaternary (since + 2 Ma).

 It is the ‘super-volcano’ eruption (VEI> 8) which produced 2,800 km3 pyroclastics materials, where 2,000 km3 of volcanic-ash dispersed to W-NW, and also distributes of sulfuric-acid aerosol to the atmosphere which is deposited in the Arctic and the Antartic areas (Rose & Chesner, 1991; Chesner, 2011).

 This mega-eruption collapsed the roof of Toba magma chamber and exposed the basement rocks of this area. The rock formations underlying the area consists of meta-sedimentary rocks that are parts of the Gondwana continent which formed in the South Pole region during Permo-Carbon (300 Ma), exposed around the steep-cliff walls of Toba caldera rim.

 In the process to reach a new equilibrium post-’super volcano’ eruption, Toba lake bottom is driven (pushed- up) by the residual pressure of the magma chamber, and formed Samosir Island (resurgent doming). This is the most active Caldera Resurgent in the world (de Silva, et al., 2015) The 90 x 30 km2 large (+ 1130 km2) of Toba Caldera is filled by rain-water, it’s the largest volcanic-lake origin, consist of + 240 km3 of fresh-water with a maximum depth about 505 m.





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